srImadh varavaramunayE nama:
srI vAnAchala mahAmunayE nama:
111. mukthanukku leelAvibhUthi thadhIyathvAkAraththAlE udhdhEsyamAga ninRathiRE.
முக்தனுக்கு லீலாவிபூதி ததீயத்வாகாரத்தாலே உத்தேச்யமாக நின்றதிறே.
For a mukthAthmA, leelA vibhUthi (samsAram - material world) is object of enjoyment since that is also a property of bhagavAn. We have already seen this in 105th entry in a detailed manner - please see http://ponnadi.blogspot.in/2013/08/divine-revelations-of-lokacharya-11.html.
112. uRanginAnAgil pararakshaNaththukku udalAyirukkum. uNarnthirunthAnAgilum appadiyE.
உறங்கினானாகில் பரரக்ஷணத்துக்கு உடலாயிருக்கும். உணர்ந்திருந்தானாகிலும் அப்படியே.
As said in "uRanguvAn pOl yOgu seytha perumAL" (உறங்குவான் போல் யோகு செய்த பெருமாள்), bhagavAn is pretending as if he is sleeping but is constantly meditating on the well-being and protection of everyone. Similarly, even when he is awake, he is protecting everyone.
Translator's note: In this pAsura vyAkyAnam, nampiLLai says that bhagavAn is closing eyes so he can fully focus on various ways to protect us (just like we close our eyes when we want to focus on something or in deep thinking). Also, AzhwArs constantly highlight that emperumAn is always looking out for the protection and well-being of everyone and they sustain themselves by having that total faith on bhagavAn's ability and desire to protect everyone. The fact that he is looking for our protection even when (seemingly) sleeping, what to speak of when he is awake - he is protecting us in awaken state also. Similar principle is explained in the beautiful example from srI rAmAyaNam. When srI rAma was camped at the seashore, all the monkeys walk around the camp of srI rAma to guard him. But after a while they become tired and slowly fall asleep one by one. srI rAma, watching this from inside, comes out and starts walking around the monkeys and guard them now. Our AchAryas say that "As bhagavAn is protecting us when we are sleeping (we are not conscious of our own self at that time), he is the one is protecting us when we are awake" - so, bhagavAn is the real refuge/protector for us all the time.
113. chakkaravarthi thirumaganukku villukaivandhirukkumApOlEyAyiRRu krushNanukku kuzhal kaivandhirukkiRapadi.
சக்கரவர்த்தி திருமகனுக்கு வில்லுகைவந்திருக்குமாபோலேயாயிற்று க்ருஷ்ணனுக்கு குழல் கைவந்திருக்கிறபடி.
As the srI rAma has full control over his sArngam bow and expertly uses it, krishNa has full control of his flute and is an expert in playing it beautifully.
Translator's note: It is said in srI rAmAyaNam that sArngam (bow) of srI rAma is under the full control of srI rAma. periyAzhwAr highlights this in thiruppallANdu last pAsuram "sArngamennum villANdAn" - the one who fully controls the bow. In the vyAkyAnam for this pAsuram, periyavAchAn piLLai beautifully highlights that sArngam represents all other Ayudhams, who represent nithyasUris - that he is the total controller of nithyasUris (and ofcourse mukthAthmAs and jIvAthmAs in this samsAram). He also highlights that "ANdAn" means not just holding it but fully controlling it, like a king fully controlling his subjects.
periyAzhwAr in his periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 3.6 - "nAvalam periya thIvinil" padhigam , beautifully describes the mesmerizing effect of kaNNan emperumAn's flute playing skills. He gives a beautiful narration of krishNa's posture and beautiful bodily changes (like his nice hand positions, his lips joining to play the flute, his head slightly slanted, his stomach expanding and collapsing due to the inhaling/exhaling of air, etc). The gOpis of vrundhAvan, the cows and cattles, even dhEva lOka dancers, etc., are stunned by krishNa's melodious tunes and stand still without taking their eyes of him. Such is his control and mastery over the flute.
114. ganaththAruNdAyirukkach cheythEyum bAramillaiyiRE ahankAra sparsamudaiyAr illAmaiyAlE.
கனத்தாருண்டாயிருக்கச் செய்தேயும் பாரமில்லையிறே அஹங்கார ஸ்பர்சமுடையார் இல்லாமையாலே.
In parampadham, there are innumerable nithyasUris who are fully knowledgable yet they are completely prideless - so they are not considered as a burden.
Translator's note: In periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4.4.6 pAsuram, periyAzhwAr identifies that the ones who has such stone like heart which does not meditate on thirukkOshtiyUr emperumAn who is decorated with sudharsana chakram - he is simply a burden for this earth (bhUmi bhAram). Similarly, in the pAsuram that glorifies thiruppAvai - "pAthgangaL thIrkkum...", it is said that the ones who do not know all the 30 pAsurams of thiruppAvai are simply not worth to be carried by earth. Unlike these, the ones who are in paramapadham are fully realized and pure. Thus they are never considered as burden to any one.
115. sEshikkupAyabAvam svarUpAnubanthiyAna pinbu sEshavhUthanukkum prAvaNyam svarUpAnubandhiyAgak kadavathu.
சேஷிக்குபாயபாவம் ஸ்வரூபாநுபந்தியான பின்பு சேஷபூதனுக்கும் ப்ராவண்யம் ஸ்வரூபாநுபந்தியாகக் கடவது.
It is natural for bhagavAn (the master) to be the upAyam (give protection to jIvAthmA) for mOksham. Similarly, it is natural for jIvAthmA (the servant) to have great attachment towards bhagavAn.
- sUthram 86 - whatever is done out of extreme love towards bhagavAn those are not considered as upAyam (means), instead they are manifestation of divine love towards emperumAn by such devoted prapannas
- sUthram 87 - anything done as upAyam should be given up, but anything done as kainkaryam should be accepted
- sUthram 88 - if persons who are attached to worldly pleasures (women, money, etc) are ready to give up their own life to achieve those pleasures, it is normal for prapannas who have extremely love for bhagavAn to do anything out of such extreme love
- sUthram 89 - And for such prapannas who are totally attached to bhagavAn (with zero attachment to anything else), their anushtAnam (following rules) or ananushtAnam (not following rules) will not become part of upAyam (pursuing bhagavAn on their own)
- sUthram 90 - Even such acts (like publicly displaying anguish due to delayed arrival or non-arrival of bhagavAn, such as sending message through messengers, etc) are seen in great personalities like AzhwArs themselves - but they are done out of extreme love and devotion towards bhagavAn
- sUthram 91 - Such acts that are seen in great personalities are to be greatly glorified since they are fully knowledgable, yet are bewildered by extreme love towards bhagavAn
- sUthram 92 - Such acts are part of kainkaryam (and bhagavath anubhavam). They are the result of emperumAn's efforts to bless them to become AzhwArs and for the full pleasure of bhagavAn himself.
116. prAptha vishayaprAvaNyam svarUpamAgaiyAlE avadhyakaramanRu. slAgyamAmiththanai.
ப்ராப்த விஷயப்ராவண்யம் ஸ்வரூபமாகையாலே அவத்யகரமன்று. ஸ்லாக்யமாமித்தனை.
Since attachment towards bhagavAn (who is the most apt object of our attachment) is natural for jIvAthmA and it is not inferior. Infact, it is commendable.
Traslator's note: Having attachment to bhagavAn and wanting to serve him with great affection is natural for jIvAthmA. This principle is most beautifully and practically explained by piLLai lOkAchAryar in mumukshuppadi - mAmunigaL's wonderful vyAkyAnam is to be cherished by every one. Let us see them here:
- sUthram 52 - "sEshathvam dhukka rUpamAgavanRO nAttil kANgiRathu" ennil ("சேஷத்வம் துக்க ரூபமாகவன்றோ நாட்டில் காண்கிறது" என்னில்) - If it is considered that "serving some one is always sorrowful as seen in the world". mAmunigaL quotes from manu smrithi where it is said that "sarvam paravasam dhukkam" (ஸர்வம் பரவசம் துக்கம் - being at service to others is sorrowful) and "sEvA sva vruththi" (சேவா ச்வ வ்ருத்தி - servitorship is dog's job and thus should be given up).
- sUthram 53 - antha niyamam illai; ugantha vishayaththukku sEshamAyirukkum iruppu sukamAgakkANgaiyAlE (அந்த நியமம் இல்லை; உகந்த விஷயத்துக்கு சேஷமாயிருக்கும் இருப்பு ஸுகமாகக்காண்கையாலே) - This (servitorship being sorrowful) is not true; As we observe that serving the ones who are dear to us, is pleasing and blissful.
- sUthram 54 - akAraththilE kalyANa guNangaLaich chollugaiyAlE intha sEshathvamum guNaththAlE vanthathu (அகாரத்திலே கல்யாண குணங்களைச் சொல்லுகையாலே இந்த சேஷத்வமும் குணத்தாலே வந்தது) - As bhagavAn is filled with auspicious qualities (as identified in akAram in praNavam), our servitorship is based on bhagavAn's auspicious qualities and thus our service to him will obviously lead to bliss.
- sUthram 55 - sEshathvamE AthmAvukku svarUpam (சேஷத்வமே ஆத்மாவுக்கு ஸ்வரூபம்) - Servitorship is the true nature of jIvAthmA. This is an answer to a question raised for previous sUthram. If our servitorship is based on his divine qualities, is it not natural? Will we give up our servitorship if bhagavAn does not have divine qualities? The answer is - being the servant of bhagavAn is the natural position of jIvAthmA as established by sAsthram.
- sUthram 56 - sEshathvam illAthapOthu svarUpam illai (சேஷத்வம் இல்லாதபோது ஸ்வரூபம் இல்லை) - When this servitorship is not present, jIvAthmA gives up his true identity.
117. jIvaparargaL iruvarukkum apahathapApmathvAdhigaL uNdAyirukkachcheythEyum jIvAthmAvukku hEyamuNdAy bhagavadhanugrahaththAlE kazhiyum. paramAthmA hEya samsargga anarhanAyE irukkum.
ஜீவபரர்கள் இருவருக்கும் அபஹதபாப்மத்வாதிகள் உண்டாயிருக்கச்செய்தேயும் ஜீவாத்மாவுக்கு ஹேயமுண்டாய் பகவதநுக்ரஹத்தாலே கழியும். பரமாத்மா ஹேய ஸம்ஸர்க்க அநர்ஹநாயே இருக்கும்.
Both jIvAthmA and paramAthmA has 8 auspicious qualities starting with apahathapApmA. For a jIvAthmA, it becomes manifest only after giving up the material body and attaining mOksham by the grace of bhagavAn. This is called svarUpa AvirbhAvam (self realization). bhagavAn does not have material body (which hides his auspicious qualities) ever. The eight qualities are:
- apahathapApmathvam - no connection to sins and vices
- vijarathvam - no scope for old age
- vimruthyuthvam - no scope for death
- visOkathvam - no scope for sorrows
- vijigathsathvam - no scope for hunger
- abipAsathvam - no scope for thirst
- sathya kAmathvam - having divine qualities that are enjoyable
- sathya sankalpathvam - having the ability to fulfill all vows
Translator's note: jIvAthmAs are naturally pure and have auspicious qualities. But when they are in samsAram bound by their karmA, their knowledge and bliss are constrained. When their bondage is released by the mercy, they become mukthAthmA and reach paramapadham. At that time, mukthAthmAs fully realize the knowledge and bliss and the eight divine qualities as well.
But bhagavAn is never bound by karmA. In fact, he takes birth in this samsArm out of his causeless mercy to help the suffering jIvAthmAs. That is why it is said in rg vEdham that "sa u shreyAn bhavati jAyamAna:" () - bhagavAn becomes more praiseworthy when he appears in this world. Also, when he descends from paramapadham in to samsAram, he does not minimize any of his auspicious qualities and appears with the same divine form (unlike the material body made of matter for jIvAthmAs). This principle is beautifully explained by nammAzhwAr in thiruvAimozhi 5.3.5 - "Adhiyam chOthi uruvai angu vaiththu ingup piRanthu" (ஆதியம் சோதி உருவை அங்கு வைத்து இங்குப் பிறந்து) - bhagavAn who is eternal, appears in this world with his most enchanting and divine form that is seen in parampadham.
118. nIrmaikkellaiyAna thirumalai AsrayaNIyasthalam; mEnmaikkellaiyAna paramapadham anubavasthAnam.
நீர்மைக்கெல்லையான திருமலை ஆச்ரயணீயஸ்தலம்; மேன்மைக்கெல்லையான பரமபதம் அநுபவஸ்தாநம்.
nIrmai - simplicity, easy accessibility to facilitate any one to approach him. The epitome of such simplicity is in thiruvEnkatam. mEnmai - supremacy. The epitome of supremacy is in paramapadham - where there is constant enjoyment.
Translator's note: thiruvEnkatamudaiyAn is considered as the epitome of simplicity and easy accessibility. thirumazhisai AzhwAr identifies in nAnmugan thiruvanthAdhi 45 that thiruvEnkatamudaiyAn is common for nithyasUris and samsAris. In the subsequent pAsuram, he identifies that even animals can reach out to thiruvEnkatamudaiyAn easily. kulasEkara AzhwAr identifies in perumAL thirumozhi 4.9 "adiyArum vAnavarum arambaiyarum kidanthiyangum" (அடியாரும் வானவரும் அரம்பையரும் கிடந்தியங்கும்) - all kinds of people stay and worship thiruvEnkatamudaiyAn - ananya prayOjanars (adiyArs - one who want to purely serve emperumAn - the devotees), prayOjanAntharaparars (vAnavar - dhEvas who are always looking out for material enjoyment) and anyasEshaparars (arambai - rambA, Urvasi, etc - who are serving other dhEvathas like indhra, etc).
paramapadham is full of bliss. There is limitless enjoyment there and the focus is on bhagavAn fully and his supremacy is manifested clearly.
119. svarUpAnurUpamAna prApyAnusandhAnam paNNinAl pOyppukkallathu niRka voNNAthu.
ஸ்வரூபாநுரூபமான ப்ராப்யாநுஸந்தாநம் பண்ணினால் போய் புக்கல்லது நிற்க வொண்ணாது.
For the jIvAthmA, if the true identity of being a servitor of bhagavAn is understood and such desire for kainkaryam is constantly meditated upon, he is sure to reach bhagavAn.
Translator's note: nammAzhwAr also longed for kainkaryam in "ozhivil kAlam" padhigam (thiruvAimozhi 3.3). AzhwAr, by the causeless mercy of emperuman, having realized that it is apt for the jIvAthmA to eternally serve emperumAn, prays in thiruvAimozhi 3.3 "ozhivil kAlam" padhigam, that he serves bhagavAn at all times, in all ways and in all forms without any blemish and with being in close proximity to bhagavAn. Our pUrvAchAryas have instructed that, we should constantly pray to emperumAn for more kainkaryam that is pleasing to emperumAn. This is the purpose of reciting dhvaya mahA manthram. dhvaya mahA manthram has two parts - in the first part we accept bhagavAn's lotus feet as the upAyam through the purushakAram of pirAtti; in the second part, we pray for constant/pure service to the divine couple purely for their pleasure (without a tinge of self-interest). In pUrva dhinacharyai, eRumbi appA documented the daily routine of mAmunigaL. There he identifies that mAmunigaL's lips are constantly reciting the dhvavya mahA manthram and his mind his constantly meditating on the divine meanings of dhvaya mahA manthram (which is nothing but thiruvAimozhi itself). And as a result of such constant reciting and meditation, mAmunigaL's divine form goes through divine transformations like hairs standing erect, goose bumps, etc - out of great anubhavam.
120. nam mudhaligaL guruparamparai munnAga dhvayAnusandhAnam paNNugiRathu.
நம் முதலிகள் குருபரம்பரை முன்னாக த்வயாநுஸந்தானம் பண்ணுகிறது.
Our pUrvAchAryas first recited guru paramparai followed by dhvaya mahA manthram which is called manthra rathnam (gem among manthrams). This is our refuge too.
Translator's note: As we understood that our pUrvAchAryas were constantly meditating on dhvaya mahA manthram, we should also understand that dhvya mahA manthram is not recited independently without reciting guru paramparai first, i.e., we dont approach pirAtti and perumAL independently instead we approach them through the guru paramparai. This is why our pUrvAchAryas always recited guru paramparA manthram before reciting dhvaya mahA manthram.
asmadh gurubhyO nama: (our own AchAryan)
asmadh paramagurubhyO nama: (our AchAryan's AchAryan)
asmadh sarvagurubhyO nama: (All AchAryas)
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama: (emperumAnAr)
srI parAngusa dhAsAya nama: (periya nambi)
srImadh yAmuna munayE nama: (ALavandhAr)
srI rAma misrAya nama: (maNakkAl nambi)
srI puNdarikAkshAya nama: (uyyakkoNdAr)
srIman nAthamunayE nama: (nAthamunigaL)
srImathE sadagOpAya nama: (nammAzhwAr)
srImathE vishvaksEnAya nama: (sEnai mudhaliyAr)
sriyai nama: (periya pirAtti)
srIdharAya nama: (periya perumAL)
This is highlighted by piLLai lOkAchAryar in srIvachana bhUshaNam sUthram 274 - japthavyam guru paramparaiyum dhvayamum (ஜப்தவ்யம் குரு பரம்பரையும் த்வயமும்) - One should constantly recite guruparamparai and dhvya mahA manthram.
Full series can be viewed at: http://ponnadi.blogspot.in/p/divine-revelations-of-lokacharya.html.